Review of the public transport sector development policy in Kazakhstan

This UNDP project aimed to conduct a large-scale and comprehensive overview of the public transport sector in Kazakhstan with a focus on urban transport. The analysis builds on the previous work of the Sustainable Urban Transport Development Project 2013–2023 for Almaty, as well as on subsequent proposals from international organizations for amendments to legislation that could facilitate decision-making and improve financing opportunities for improving urban transport infrastructure in Kazakhstan.

BDC Consulting together with ETC Germany carried out a detailed analysis of the state of the applicable regulations in the field of passenger transport; assisted UNDP specialists in developing a rationale based on international best practices for the implementation of relevant amendments to laws and regulations.

Conceptual proposals for legislative amendments were also developed for the Ministry of Investment and Development with the aim of creating a specialized organization that will deal with the procedures for organizing public transport.

The consultants recommended that the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan delegate all responsibilities for organizing public transport to local authorities and minimize any related regulations. The current model, in which the National Government participates at a detailed level in the organization of passenger transport, has a strong negative factor for the development of public transport in Kazakhstan. It is necessary to simplify and delegate responsibilities, thereby issue a completely new Law on Public Transport.

After considering the introduction of gross contracts (GC) for public transport, BDC Consulting and ETC Germany consultants have developed a more appropriate model for this issue, taking into account the different needs in cities and regions.

The prepared overview report of the consultants includes the results of the comprehensive analysis carried out, as well as the prepared recommendations for improving the public transport sector in Almaty and the corresponding sector development strategy based on international experience and existing practice in Kazakhstan. These recommendations are aimed at improving the legislative, regulatory and institutional frameworks, as well as building capacity to promote the development of sustainable public transport and reduce emissions of harmful substances from traffic in Kazakhstan.